Pituitary Tumor Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

May 11, 2023


Welcome to the detailed guide on pituitary tumors, brought to you by MUIR DIABLO OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE. In this comprehensive article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this health condition. Our aim is to provide you with valuable information that will help you better understand pituitary tumors and make informed decisions regarding your health.

Understanding Pituitary Tumors

Pituitary tumors, also known as adenomas, are abnormal growths that develop within the pituitary gland. Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized organ responsible for the production and regulation of various hormones that control essential bodily functions.

There are different types of pituitary tumors, classified based on their size, hormone secretion, and whether they are cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). The majority of pituitary tumors are benign, meaning they do not spread to other parts of the body.

Causes of Pituitary Tumors

The exact cause of pituitary tumors is not yet fully understood. However, researchers believe that certain genetic mutations and alterations in the DNA of pituitary cells may play a role in their development.

Additionally, certain risk factors such as a family history of pituitary tumors, genetic disorders like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), and certain inherited conditions like Carney complex and McCune-Albright syndrome may increase the likelihood of developing a pituitary tumor.

Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors

The symptoms of pituitary tumors can vary depending on the specific type, size, and location of the tumor. It's important to note that not all pituitary tumors cause symptoms, and some may only be discovered incidentally during medical imaging for unrelated issues. However, when symptoms do occur, they can be classified into two categories:

Hormone-Related Symptoms

  • Hypersecretion: Some pituitary tumors can cause excessive hormone production, leading to symptoms such as:
    • Unexplained weight gain or loss
    • Changes in menstrual cycle
    • Excessive hair growth
    • Increased thirst or urination
    • Enlarged hands or feet
  • Hyposecretion: Other pituitary tumors can lead to insufficient hormone production, resulting in symptoms including:
    • Fatigue or weakness
    • Loss of appetite
    • Decreased sex drive
    • Changes in mood
    • Low blood pressure

Tumor-Related Symptoms

  • Compression: As pituitary tumors enlarge, they can press against nearby structures, leading to symptoms such as:
    • Headaches
    • Vision problems
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Dizziness
    • Difficulty with coordination

Diagnosis and Treatment Options

If you suspect you may have a pituitary tumor or are experiencing any of the symptoms mentioned, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional. They will perform a thorough evaluation, which may include:

Medical History and Physical Examination

Your healthcare provider will inquire about your symptoms, medical history, and conduct a physical examination to assess any noticeable abnormalities or signs of hormonal imbalance.

Imaging Tests

Imaging tests such as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) or CT (Computed Tomography) scans are commonly used to visualize the size, location, and nature of the pituitary tumor. These tests provide crucial information for determining the most appropriate treatment approach.

Hormone Level Testing

Blood tests will be carried out to measure hormone levels in order to identify any abnormalities associated with the pituitary tumor. This helps in diagnosing hormonal imbalances and determining the specific hormones being over or underproduced.

Treatment Approaches

The treatment of pituitary tumors depends on various factors such as tumor size, type, symptoms, and the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:

Watchful Waiting

In cases where the tumor is small and not causing significant symptoms, your healthcare provider may recommend regular monitoring without immediate intervention. This approach is often preferred for non-functioning or slow-growing tumors.


If the pituitary tumor is producing excessive hormone levels, medications can be prescribed to help normalize hormone secretion or shrink the tumor. Medications such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogs, and hormone replacement therapy may be used, depending on the specific hormone imbalance present.


Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor, known as transsphenoidal surgery, is a common treatment option. This procedure involves accessing the tumor through the nasal cavity or an incision under the upper lip, allowing for precise removal while minimizing damage to surrounding structures.

In some cases, if the tumor is too large or cannot be completely removed without risking complications, radiation therapy may be recommended in addition to surgery.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy, including conventional external beam radiation and newer techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery, uses focused beams of radiation to target and kill tumor cells. It is often used as an adjunct treatment or when surgery is not possible.

Follow-Up Care

After treatment, regular follow-up appointments will be scheduled to monitor your progress, assess hormone levels, and ensure the tumor does not recur.


In summary, pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop within the pituitary gland. They can cause a wide range of symptoms due to hormonal imbalances and compression of surrounding structures. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are key to managing pituitary tumors effectively.

MUIR DIABLO OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE is dedicated to providing comprehensive care and expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary tumors. We understand the importance of personalized healthcare and strive to empower our patients with the knowledge and support they need to make informed decisions about their well-being.

If you have any concerns or would like to schedule an appointment with our experienced healthcare professionals, please reach out to us today.

John Pikos
Informative and comprehensive.
Oct 7, 2023